The thinning is most pronounced in the polar regions, especially over. The mean losses are about the same as those over the Antarctic during the early 1990s, with geographically localized losses of up to two- thirds of the Arctic ozone column in the worst years. These ions are still unstable, and they react with a second ozone molecule to produce more molecular oxygen and leave the halogen ion free to start the process over again. Climate change and ozone depletion are two global issues that are different but have many connections. The last section examines the Montreal Protocol and discusses its prospects for success.
The Montreal Protocol is a landmark agreement in that it is the first international treaty for mitigating a global atmospheric problem before serious environmental impacts have been conclusively detected. Two typical balloon ozone soundings with the Indian ozone-son de taken from Dakshin Gangotri, Antarctica, bring out clearly the intense ozone depletion at levels between 14 and 25 km during spring and the later filling up of the ozone hole in summer. The sunlight reaching us consists of approximately 0. Decreases, however, have been as great as 6. Chris Deziel holds a Bachelor's degree in physics and a Master's degree in Humanities, He has taught science, math and English at the university level, both in his native Canada and in Japan.
Bromine compounds, or halons, can also destroy strato-spheric ozone. This lower region of stratosphere containing relatively higher concentrations of ozone is called Ozonosphere. At the same time, increase in the level of ozone in the lower atmosphere can enhance the ability of sunlight to synthesize vitamin D, which can be regarded as an important beneficial effect of ozone layer depletion. By contrast, the epidemiology of melanoma is more complex: It affects relatively young people and, unlike other skin cancers, it has been increasing over the last few decades in all white-skinned populations-studied. Other potential health effects include suppression of the immune system leading to a higher incidence of some infectious diseases, and eye disorders such as cataracts or retinal damage. In limited pockets O 3 level can be potentially harmful. The free chlorine molecule again reacts with ozone to form chlorine monoxide.
Our discussion here will focus on two of the main reactions involved in the production of ozone in the atmosphere. The ozone layer encircles the earth and occurs naturally. For more project materials Log on to Or call +2348130686500 +2348093423853. Crutzen, Molina, and Rowland received the for Chemistry in 1995 for their efforts. You need to build a sequence of at least five 3D-frames a single one of a series of still models that shows the whole process.
However, studies have pointed out that the lifespan of lower atmospheric ozone is quite less, compared to stratospheric ozone. Subsequently, the key question was not so much whether there would be a protocol, but rather how strong it would be. Resent research suggests that the strength of the polar vortex from any given year is directly correlated to the size of the ozone hole. Reports of holes in the ozone layer over Antarctica have raised considerable concern about environmental policy and have prompted many governments of the world to impose strict regulations regarding the release of ozone-depleting chemicals into the atmosphere. Habitat Loss: Due the destruction of the land, natural habitat of animal have been reduced. Exposure to air containing toxic result in the lesions to plants, usually confined to the upper surfaces of leaves.
The causes, mechanism and bio-effects of ozone layer depletion on humans were addressed. Consequences of Ozone Depletion : The ultraviolet light in the 220-320 nm range i. Although this particular project focuses on locating the ozone layer, it helps to understand why the ozone layer exists where it does in the atmosphere. Taken directly from the Clean Air Act, as of June 2010. Ozone is a highly unstable compound formed as a result of photochemical dissociation of the normal oxygen molecule, O 2, which is in abundance and comprises about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. In 1974, chemists Mario Molina and Sherwood Rowland of the University of California, Irvine, first warned of the danger of ozone deterioration in the atmosphere.
Located in the upper atmosphere, the ozone layer is a blanket of ozone gas, O 3, which until recently completely enveloped the earth and its lower atmosphere. This reduced mixing is caused by the , also called the polar winter vortex. Studies carried out on microorganisms indicate that both irreversible and photo reversible types of injury are caused. As a result of its chemical composition, ozone is regarded as a special type of oxygen as it contains three oxygen molecules O 3 as opposed to the usual two oxygen molecules O 2. What we need to understand is that their methane levels are nothing as compared to our creation of a hole on the ozone layer.
The reader is directed to the reviews cited above for a more comprehensive view of progress made in the field prior to 1989. Indeed, Britain and France questioned whether the United States was being motivated by economic concerns the threat of European dominance in commercial supersonic flight rather than environmental concerns, and were angered by what they saw as U. The second reaction shows how ozone is produced: The oxygen atoms produced in the first equation are needed to react with oxygen molecules in the air in the presence of an energy absorber such as N 2 to produce ozone, O 3. However, the project was controversial for economic and political reasons, and for other environmental problems sonic booms and engine noise , long before the issue of stratospheric ozone depletion was raised. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Human Health.